Beskydy natural forests

LTER site
Beskydy natural forests
Major ecosystems
fir-beech mixed forests, herb-rich beech forests, montane sycamore-beech forests
Available data since
Site coordinator
Dušan Adam (
Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening (
53 ha
775 m a.s.l.
49°26'55'' N
18°31'20'' E
Annual precipitation
1202 mm
Temperature (air)

Three natural forest reserves – Mionší, Razula, and Salajka – represent current Carpathian fir-beech forests. They were historically influenced by a Walachian colonization that came to the Beskydy Mts. from south and affected forests by sheep grazing, litter raking, and gathering beech firewood. Although excess felling was not realized in these natural forests, species structure was affected in favour of fir during modern times. Since the 1930s, all three LTER sites have been left to spontaneous development. Beech has returned as the main species of these stands. Exceeding numbers of deer game populations, which represent main indirect human influence in these reserves, block growing out of fir seedlings considerably. Various ways of seedling protection are tested inside the sites; however, no selective interventions on advanced growth are practiced. Indispensable positive influence should play a gradual return of natural predators of deer game (lynx, wolf, and also bear) into the western Carpathians.

Site Mionší 1 Mionší 2 Mionší 3 Salajka Razula
Area (ha) 5,92 2,54 1,00 19,03 22,84
Latitude (N, centre) 49°32'11" 49°32'16" 49°32'10" 49°24'07" 49°21'35"
Longitude (E, centre) 18°39'37" 18°39'40" 18°39'16" 18°25'17" 18°23'03"
Minimum altitude (m a.s.l.) 817 778 810 715 600
Maximum altitude (m a.s.l.) 890 884 850 820 812
Natural development since 1935 1935 1935 1925 1935
Complete dendrometry in 1995, 2009 1957, 2004 1953, 1999 1974, 1994, 2007 1972, 1995, 2009